Isegoría, No 58 (2018)

El igualitarismo de la suerte, Kant y la injusticia de tolerar la pobreza en el mundo


https://doi.org/10.3989/Isegoria.2018.058.04

Asier Erdozain
University of Milan, Italia
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5096-1008

Resumen


Este artículo pretende ofrecer una defensa plausible y renovada de los principios morales de la ya familiar corriente de filosofía política ‘igualitarismo de la suerte’, la cual, amparándose no solo en el programa moral kantiano sino también en una serie de intuiciones notablemente arraigadas en nuestros días, goza de una justificación suficientemente sólida como para constituirse en referente ético global, a partir del cual la erradicación de la pobreza sea considerada como un deber moral positivo y, en contraposición, su tolerancia como una clara injusticia. Las tesis presentadas parten de la idea ampliamente aceptada en filosofía moral de que “todas las personas somos iguales en valor moral fundamental”, argumentándose que los principios que rigen la doctrina del igualitarismo de la suerte satisfacen dicha máxima hasta sus últimas consecuencias y conforman una teoría sostenible de justicia que es capaz de superar de forma razonable las críticas más importantes que han mermado su mérito en tiempos recientes.

Palabras clave


Kant; pobreza global; igualitarismo de la suerte; libertad; responsabilidad; justificación de segunda persona

Texto completo:


PDF

Referencias


Anderson, E., (1999), "What is the point of equality?", Ethics , 109: 287-337. https://doi.org/10.1086/233897

Anderson, E., (2010), "The fundamental disagreement between luck egalitarians and relational egalitarians", Canadian Journal of Philosophy , 40: sup. 1, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/00455091.2010.10717652

Arneson, R., (1989), "Equality and Equal Opportunity for Welfare", Philosophical Studies, 56: 77-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00646210

Arneson, R., (1990), "Liberalism, Distributive Subjectivism, and Equal Opportunity for Welfare", Philosophy and Public Affairs, 19: 158-94.

Arneson, R., (2000), "Luck egalitarianism and prioritarianism", Ethics , 110, No. 2: 339-349. https://doi.org/10.1086/233272

Arneson, R., (2004), "Luck egalitarianism interpreted and defended", Philosophical Topics, 32:1-20. https://doi.org/10.5840/philtopics2004321/217

Bentham, J., (1789), An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation Oxford: Clarendon P.

Brennan, J., (2012), Libertarianism: What Everyone Needs to Know, Oxford University Press.

Clarke, R. y Capes, J., (2014), "Incompatibilist (Nondeterministic) Theories of free Will", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Edward N. Zalta (ed.).

Cohen, G. A., (1989), "On the currency of egalitarian justice", Ethics , 99, pp. 906-944. https://doi.org/10.1086/293126

Cohen, G. A., (2008), Rescuing Justice and Equality, Harvard UP. https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674029651

Collier, P., (2007), The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cullity, G., (2004), The Moral Demands of Affluence, Clarendon Press, Oxford. https://doi.org/10.1093/0199258112.001.0001

Darwall, S., (2006), The Second-Person Standpoint: Morality, Respect, and Accountability, Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press.

Dworkin, R., (1981a), "What is Equality? Part 1: Equality of Welfare", Philosophy and Public Affairs 10, pp. 185-246.

Dworkin, R., (1981b), "What is Equality? Part 2: Equality of Resources", Philosophy and Public Affairs 10, pp. 283-345.

Dworkin, R., (2000), Sovereign Virtue: The Theory and Practice of Equality, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Dworkin, R., (2003), "Equality, luck, and hierarchy", Philosophy and Public Affairs , 31: 190-198. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1088-4963.2003.00190.x

Epstein, R. A., (1995), Simple Rules for a Complex World, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Fleurbaey, M., (1995), "Equal Opportunity for Equal Social Outcome", Economics and Philosophy , 11: 25-55. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266267100003217

Gosepath, S., (2011), "Equality", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Edward N. Zalta (ed.).

Kant, I., (2012), Fundamentación para una metafísica de las costumbres , ed. de R. R. Aramayo, Madrid, Alianza Editorial.

Kant, I., (2013), Crítica de la razón práctica , ed. de R. R. Aramayo, Madrid, Alianza Editorial.

Korsgaard, C. M., (1996), The Sources of Normativity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511554476

Korsgaard, C. M., (1997), "The Normativity of Instrumental Reason", in Garrett Cullity and Berys Gaut (eds.), Ethics and Practical Reason . Oxford: Clarendon Press. PMCid:PMC508254

Korsgaard, C. M., (2007), "Autonomy and the second person within: A commentary on Stephen Darwall's the second-person standpoint", Ethics , 118(1): 8-23. https://doi.org/10.1086/522019

Korsgaard, C. M., (2009), "Self-Constitution: Agency, Identity, and Integrity", Oxford University Press https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199552795.001.0001 PMCid:PMC2670374

Lichtenberg, J., (2014), Distant Strangers: Ethics, Psychology, and Global Poverty, Cambridge University Press.

Lippert-Rasmussen, K., (2001) "Egalitarianism, Option Luck and Responsibility" Ethics 111: 548-79. https://doi.org/10.1086/233526

Lippert-Rasmussen, K., (2015), "Luck egalitarians versus relational egalitarians: on the prospects of a pluralist account of egalitarian justice", Canadian Journal of Philosophy , 45, Issue 2: 220-241. https://doi.org/10.1080/00455091.2015.1061369

Lomasky, L., (1987), Persons, Rights, and the Moral Community, Oxford University Press. PMid:3610628

Mill, J. S., (1861), Utilitarianism , Roger Crisp (ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Murphy, L., (2000), Moral Demands in Nonideal Theory, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Nagel, T., (1979), "Moral Luck", en Mortal Questions, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nagel, T., (1991), "Equality and Partiality ", New York: Oxford University Press.

Nelkin, D. K., (2013), "Moral Luck", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, E. N. Zalta (ed.). PMCid:PMC4164813

Nozick, R., (1974), Anarchy, State, and Utopia, New York: Basic Books.

Parfit, D., (1984), Reasons and Persons, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Pogge, T., (2002), World Poverty and Human Rights: Cosmopolitan Responsibilities and Reforms , London: Polity Press; 2nd edition, 2008.

Queralt J., (2015), "El igualitarismo de la suerte", Doxa: Cuadernos de Filososfía del Derecho , 38.

Rawls, J., (1978), Teoría de la justicia , trad. María Dolores González, Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Roemer, J., (1998), Equality of Opportunity, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Sachs, J., (2006), The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time, Penguin Books.

Sánchez-Migallón, S., (2012), Utilitarismo, en Fernández Labastida, F. y Mercado, J. A. (eds.), Philosophica: Enciclopedia filosófica on line .

Singer, P., (1972), "Famine, affluence, and morality", Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1(3): 229-243.

Steiner, H., (1994), An Essay on Rights, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

Stemplowska, Z., (2013), "Rescuing luck egalitarianism", J. of Social Philosophy, 44, 4:402-419. https://doi.org/10.1111/josp.12039

Temkin, L. S., (1993), Inequality, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Uzgalis, W., (2017), "John Locke", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy , E. N. Zalta (ed.). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118430873.est0483

Van Parijs, P., (1995), Real Freedom for All, New York: Oxford University Press. PMid:8724827

Williams, B., (1981), Moral Luck, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139165860




Copyright (c) 2018 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.


Contacte con la revista isegoria.cchs@cchs.csic.es

Soporte técnico soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es